Evolution within a Lineage

By The Associated Press In one recent case in Willow, a calf was put in a backyard dog run with a collar around its neck. Another calf was taken into a home in the Wasilla area. Last week, someone tackled a calf at an Anchorage mobile home park and tied it up with an electrical cord, the Anchorage Daily News reported. You want to know what baby moose aka mooselets look like? Taking an animal into captivity is dangerous and illegal, and it can lead to animals being injured or worse, officials said. In the Anchorage incident, someone called authorities Friday to report that a cow moose with two calves was running around a mobile home park.

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The International History Project Date: Archaeology studies past human behavior through the examination of material remains of previous human societies. These remains include the fossils preserved bones of humans, food remains, the ruins of buildings, and human artifacts—items such as tools, pottery, and jewelry. From their studies, archaeologists attempt to reconstruct past ways of life.

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Pelagic zone The open ocean is relatively unproductive because of a lack of nutrients, yet because it is so vast, in total it produces the most primary productivity. The open ocean is separated into different zones, and the different zones each have different ecologies. Zones which vary by the amount of light they receive include the photic and aphotic zones. Much of the aphotic zone’s energy is supplied by the open ocean in the form of detritus.

Deep sea and trenches[ edit ] A deep-sea chimaera. Its snout is covered with tiny pores capable of detecting animals by perturbations in electric fields. At such depths, water pressure is extreme and there is no sunlight, but some life still exists. A white flatfish , a shrimp and a jellyfish were seen by the American crew of the bathyscaphe Trieste when it dove to the bottom in Marine life also flourishes around seamounts that rise from the depths, where fish and other sea life congregate to spawn and feed.

Hydrothermal vents along the mid-ocean ridge spreading centers act as oases , as do their opposites, cold seeps. Such places support unique biomes and many new microbes and other lifeforms have been discovered at these locations. Most involve studying specializations of particular animal groups, such as phycology , invertebrate zoology and ichthyology.

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Important We believe any unbiased reader will realize that we were fair with our treatment of the two models in the table above. Yet, although the theory of evolution matches the facts in some cases, evolution is still an unproven theory. By now, you may believe it should be your first choice also. Unlike many others that preceded us, we attempted to find a clear defense of evolution for two reasons: To keep from being accused of bias. To keep from making claims that someone could refute later.

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Radiometric Dating Works Radiometric dating works by calculating the age of rocks using a radioisotope’s half-life and the relative amounts of that radioisotope and its byproducts. The YECs claim that radiometric dating is unreliable due to either contamination or changes in the half-life. He starts off with three basics that provide more than enough evidence by themselves: Moreover, the half-lives of isotopes don’t change when scientists subject them to extreme temperatures and pressures in the laboratory.

And when radiometric dates can be checked against dates from the historical record, as with the carbon method, they invariably agree. It’s hard to take the YEC argument seriously when all of the evidence points in the opposite direction. And a technique called isochron dating limits any potential problems with the method even further. Then Coyne recounts an ingenious method for independently confirming the accuracy of radiometric dating.

Certain corals were dated to million years ago.

Archeology

Archeological research, as generally practiced, shares with the rest of anthropology and the other social sciences a concern for the recurrent, patterned aspects of human behavior rather than with the isolation of the unique. It is historical in the sense that it deals with human behavior viewed through time and supplements written sources with the documentation provided by artifactual evidence from the past. During the century or so of its existence as a recognizable scholarly discipline, archeology has come more and more to apply scientific procedures to the collection and analysis of its data, even when its subject matter could be considered humanistic as well as scientific.

Archeology can also be properly regarded as a set of specialized techniques for obtaining cultural data from the past, data that may be used by anthropologists, historians, art critics, economists, or any others interested in man and his activities. This view has the advantage of eliminating the argument whether archeology is anthropology or history and allows for recognition of the varied, sometimes incompatible, purposes for which archeological data and conclusions are used.

There is no reason to regard the archeology of Beazley, who analyzes Greek black-figure vases, as identical with the archeology of MacNeish, who has excavated plant remains of the earliest Mexican farmers.

Biologists actually have different chemicals for dating can be used for estimating the relative dating can be a fossil. In the molecular clock. She wore a big part of age of fossils study guide by using relative dating.

See some updates to this article. We now consider in more detail one of the problems with potassium-argon dating, namely, the branching ratio problem. Here is some relevant information that was e-mailed to me. There are some very serious objections to using the potassium-argon decay family as a radiometric clock. The geochronologist considers the Ca40 of little practical use in radiometric dating since common calcium is such an abundant element and the radiogenic Ca40 has the same atomic mass as common calcium.

Here the actual observed branching ratio is not used, but rather a small ratio is arbitrarily chosen in an effort to match dates obtained method with U-Th-Pb dates. The branching ratio that is often used is 0. Thus we have another source of error for K-Ar dating.

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January 7, ] volution is the cornerstone of modern biology. It unites all the fields of biology under one theoretical umbrella. It is not a difficult concept, but very few people — the majority of biologists included — have a satisfactory grasp of it. One common mistake is believing that species can be arranged on an evolutionary ladder from bacteria through “lower” animals, to “higher” animals and, finally, up to man. Mistakes permeate popular science expositions of evolutionary biology.

Mistakes even filter into biology journals and texts. For example, Lodish, et. Misunderstandings about evolution are damaging to the study of evolution and biology as a whole. People who have a general interest in science are likely to dismiss evolution as a soft science after absorbing the pop science nonsense that abounds. The impression of it being a soft science is reinforced when biologists in unrelated fields speculate publicly about evolution.

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Between 1, , bison are on the ranch. As the two Polaris vehicles close in on the animals, they suddenly run off the gravel road. For a moment, the ATVs are side-by-side with the bison, which may be strays on a round-up day on the ranch.

Radiometric dating is commonly used on igneous rocks (lava), and on some sedimentary minerals. But fossils can generally not be dated directly. Picking out a few cases where radiometric dates appear to be well-behaved reminds me of evolutionary biologists focusing on a few cases where there may be transitional sequences. It does not answer.

Genetic diversity and Population genetics An individual organism’s phenotype results from both its genotype and the influence from the environment it has lived in. A substantial part of the phenotypic variation in a population is caused by genotypic variation. The frequency of one particular allele will become more or less prevalent relative to other forms of that gene.

Variation disappears when a new allele reaches the point of fixation —when it either disappears from the population or replaces the ancestral allele entirely. Before the discovery of Mendelian genetics, one common hypothesis was blending inheritance. But with blending inheritance, genetic variance would be rapidly lost, making evolution by natural selection implausible. The Hardy—Weinberg principle provides the solution to how variation is maintained in a population with Mendelian inheritance.

The frequencies of alleles variations in a gene will remain constant in the absence of selection, mutation, migration and genetic drift. Despite the constant introduction of new variation through mutation and gene flow, most of the genome of a species is identical in all individuals of that species. Mutation Duplication of part of a chromosome Mutations are changes in the DNA sequence of a cell’s genome.

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